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The main theme of the Harry Potter books is Harry Potter's fight against the evil wizard Voldemort, who killed Harry's parents and failed to kill Harry when he was one year old.
The books describe a world of wizardry quite apart from our ordinary "Muggle" world. Many of the characteristics of the wizard world are described as a quite old-fashioned, simple, and easily understood world of yesterday. For example, the wizards do not use electricity they use magic instead.
Joanne K. Rowling wrote the first book and made a plan for seven books simultaneously. In a recent interview she promised that the ending of book 7 will be in accordance with the original plan:
Question: "Has your original plan for the seven books changed along the way?" Answer: "It has changed, but only in details. In all important respects, it has stayed the same, and the ending will be exactly what I planned before 1997. The story has taken little twists and turns that I maybe didn't expect, but we are still on track. Each book has broadly done what it was supposed to do in taking you towards the final conclusion." [Note 25]
This is the author telling openly about her intentions but nobody except the author herself will know whether this is true, because the content of her plan is not published, it is a hidden intention. Rowling has created a world of quite her own invention, and she is very good at inventing, planning and describing, because there is a lot of fantasy, but apparently no mistakes and no loose ends yet. [Note 26]
Every book describes a year at the "Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry", meaning that most of the action takes place at a boarding school where you are not supposed to use money every day, meaning that the school is outside the market sphere. However, there is a business life elsewhere in the magical world. Right beside the busy high streets of London is hidden a diagonally world, literally called 'Diagon Alley'. The Hogwarts pupils meet each other here in the end of August to buy new books, quills, and clothes before leaving for Hogwarts.
As readers of the Harry Potter books we see the story as J.K. Rowling wants us to see it. We may try to understand the author's intentions. We may even try to extrapolate what is not explicitly written but we cannot learn about what is absolutely not described.
No author can describe everything, not even J.K. Rowling, and for example there is no description of any parents providing their children with new clothes during the school season or of anybody buying food for households [Note 27]. Apart from the mentioning of "Christmas" and "Easter" there are no reference to religion. See section 9.d in the appendix for a note on tobacco and alcohol.
One such thing not described is how the magical devices are produced. We do not know how to produce a flying carpet and the books are not telling us how one could do it. Which materials and spells do you have to use? According to Rowling's descriptions it is likely that the wizards' production takes place in small workshops, but we do not know, because she does not tell us. And maybe we would not like to know, if there by any means was a way to explain magical production.
This way of not knowing could be quite similar to what is happening in our Muggle, western world where we have no idea of how computer chips are made they just arrive ready-made from Taiwan and surrounding countries.
As described in section 1.e the economic story is a subplot compared to the magical world described in the books. In the following chapters I present some citations on economic matters. My extracts amount to approximately 15 printed pages, or half a percent of the total of 3,200 pages. The figure below shows the number of pages in the six books and the books' relative share of the total extract:
References, page numbers, and characters:
The first book was published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury, a fairly small independent publisher, in July 1997. The book's initial success was based on some positive reviews and word of mouth. Apparently J.K. Rowling did not have any particular age group in mind when she started to write the Harry Potter books. Her publishers initially targeted them at young readers aged 8 to 15. Rowling's writing has become more sophisticated and the content of the books has matured as the lead character, Harry Potter, has grown older. The reading age for the books, both in terms of content and style, is rising as the series goes on.
The reasons for the success of the series could be J.K. Rowling's unique mix of the genres fantasy and boarding school novel, and her ability to drive elaborate and largely seamless plots over a very wide canvas. [Note 28]
The Danish editions are published on Gyldendal, the leading Danish publishing firm. Gyldendal chose to translate Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone without knowing that the original English version would be a bestseller. It was chosen because it was judged to be a good and entertaining book. The translator Hanna Lützen adds that even if the author announced the book to be the first one in a series, one could not be sure that the following volumes would ever be written. [Note 29]
But the following volumes were written, and the series became an outstanding success, selling more than 300 million copies worldwide. [Note 30]
In the year 2000 J.K. Rowling signed a contract that allowed Warner Brothers to create films based on the series. As a part of this deal she has sold her general copyright to Warner Brothers as is shown in the colophon of every book:
"Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros., 2000™'
The first three films ranked first, second, and second in worldwide box office grosses for their years of release, a turnover of more than $2.6 billion. That resulted in and is the result of a series of major marketing campaigns. Wikipedia tells the story this way:
By the time the fourth book, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, was published in 2000 the series had become very high-profile, and the launch received much wider publicity in the general media than was usual for a new book. At around the same time Warner Brothers began work on the series of films based on the books. The involvement of a global media conglomerate led to more concerted efforts to maximise the value of the Harry Potter franchise. The first film, based on the first book, was released in 2001, and was accompanied by video games and other branded merchandise. [Note 31]
The books themselves carry only a few traces of the kind of branding that Warner Brothers and Bloomsbury use for the launching of Harry Potter films and books. It is thought-provoking, that the untrustworthy character of Gilderoy Lockhart is the books' foremost spokesman for these methods of branding (2-4-69 f., 2-6-100 f.).
See an example of public relations and storytelling in section 9.e.
The wizards' monetary system puts one in mind of the old British system of twenty shillings to a pound and twelve pence to a shilling which were changed to one hundred pence to a pound in 1971 [Note 33]. Hagrid, the keeper of the keys, explains to Harry:
'Seventeen silver Sickles to a Galleon and twenty-nine Knuts to a Sickle, it's easy enough.' (1-5-58)
Harry Potter's first introduction to the market economy of the magical world happens when he is wakened by an owl delivering the daily newspaper to Hagrid. The owl wants something, and Hagrid explains that it wants payment for the newspaper (1-5-49). In the Hogwarts Express Harry can buy Chocolate Frogs from the trolley. Harry's new friend Ron Weasley explains:
'Chocolate Frogs have cards inside, you know, to collect Famous witches and Wizards. I've got about five hundred, but I haven't got Agrippa or Ptolemy' (1-6-77)
Children grow, and they need new clothes when on a boarding school. Mrs. Weasley is planning to buy new clothes for her son Ron:
'I'll have to get you more pyjamas, these are at least six inches too short, I can't believe how fast you're growing ... what colour would you like?' (5-9-148)
Payment for education, books, and robes are mentioned sparingly. Example:
Professor Dumbledore is telling the orphan Tom Riddle how to attend school without having money:
'There is a fund at Hogwarts for those who require assistance to buy books and robes. You might have to buy some of your spellbooks and so second-hand.' (6-13-256)
Not all products stem from the market, as Harry regularly receives home-made gifts:
The books mention a lot of shops in Diagon Alley and elsewhere. The first mention is when Harry reads the list of required uniform, books, and other equipment for Hogwarts.
'Can we buy all this in London?' Harry wondered aloud.
'If yeh know where to go,' said Hagrid. (1-5-53)
The entrance is through the Leaky Cauldron, an inn connecting the ordinary London streets to Diagon Alley.
Some of the descriptions sound like ordinary business marketese:
'No two Ollivander wands are the same, just as no two unicorns, dragons or phoenixes are quite the same. And of course, you will never get such good results with another wizard's wand.' (1-5-64)
Quite near to Diagon Alley are some other, more sombre streets:
Not far from Hogwarts is Hogsmeade, the only entirely non-Muggle settlement in Britain:
There are a few other goods and services mentioned, among which
All of these firms give the impression of being small-scale businesses in traditional trades. A typical example of this is how the Three Broomsticks' landlord Madam Rosmerta sounds quite like a chairman of the local Chamber of Commerce when she complains to the Minister for Magic:
'You know that the Dementors have searched my pub twice?' said Madam Rosmerta, a slight edge to her voice. 'Scared all my customers away ... it's very bad for business, minister.' (3-10-220)
There are a few traces of use of business chains, nation-wide marketing, etc.:
Professor Slughorn is a snob, who enjoys the company of the children of the rich and powerful. For this reason we hear that there is a large chain of apothecaries:
'We're having a little party, just a few rising stars. I've got McLaggen coming, and Zabini, the charming Melinda Bobbin I don't know whether you know her? Her family owns a large chain of apothecaries ... ' (6-11-219 f.)
The very publicity-minded professor Gilderoy Lockhart is the author of a row of self-heroic books. He praises Hermione and informs us of his marketing plans this way:
'... but Miss Hermione Granger know my secret ambition is to rid the world of evil and market my own range of hair-care potions good girl!' (2-6-111)
In book 4, a hundred thousand wizards from all over the world attend the Quidditch World Cup at a deserted moor in England. A gigantic blackboard flashes advertisements across the pitch:
The Bluebottle: A Broom for All the Family safe, reliable and with In-built Anti-Burglar Buzzer ...
Mrs. Skower's All-Purpose Magical Mess-Remover: No Pain, No Stain! ...
Gladrags Wizardwear London, Paris, Hogsmeade
Bertie Botts' Every Flavour Beans a Risk with Every Mouthful (4-8-109 f., 4-8-116)
These advertisements are giving a rather old-fashioned impression. It is not the marketing of international brands the advertisements are only meant for British customers. It reminds me of the last page of the book Murder Must Advertise published by Dorothy L. Sayers in 1933. [Note 34]
Tell England. Tell the world. Eat more Oats. Take Care of your Complexion. No More War. Shine your Shoes with Shino. Ask your Grocer. Children Love Laxamalt. Prepare to meet thy God. Bung's Beer is Better. Try Dogsbody's Sausages. Whoosh the Dust Away. Give them Crunchlets. Snagsbury's Soups are Best for the Troops. Morning Star, best Paper by Far. Vote for Punkin and Protect your Profits. Stop that Sneeze with Snuffo. Flush your Kidneys with Fizzlets. Flush your Drains with Sanfect. Wear Woolfleece next the Skin. Popp's Pills Pep you up. Whiffle your Way to Fortune. Advertise, or go under.
According to what I have found in the Harry Potter books, there are only a few attempts to make use of advertisements. Branding, Human Resource Management or other, newer kinds of management are not touched on.
The books contain delicious parodies of our own world. Here is an example of Common Market regulations where Harry Potter is asking Percy Weasley, newly appointed secretary at the Ministry:
'What are you working on?' said Harry.
'A report for the Department of International Magical Co-operation,' said Percy smugly. 'We're trying to standardise cauldron thickness. Some of these foreign imports are just a shade too thin leakages have been increasing at a rate of almost three per cent a year -' (4-5-65)
What is advantageous large-scale transport, and what is prohibited Muggle Artefacts? Here is a discussion between three colleagues at the Ministry of Magic Arthur Weasley, Ludo Bagman, and Mr. Crouch:
'Ali Bashir's on the warpath. He wants a word with you about your embargo on flying carpets.'
Mr Weasley heaved a deep sigh. 'I sent him an owl about that just last week. If I've told him once I've told him a hundred times: Carpets are defined as a Muggle Artefact by the registry of Proscribed Charmable Objects, but will he listen?'
'I doubt it,' said Mr Crouch, ... 'He's desperate to export here.'
'Well, they'll never replace brooms in Britain, will they?' said Bagman.
'Ali thinks there's a niche in the market for a family vehicle,' said Mr Crouch. 'I remember my grandfather had an Axminster that could seat twelve but that was before carpets were banned, of course.' (4-7-103 f.)
Harry Potter stayed with his aunt Petunia and uncle Vernon Dursley from he was one year old until he was 11 years old at the start of book 1. Every summer he is supposed to stay with the Dursleys. They treat him badly, and J.K. Rowling describes the family in a way so that you can only despise them.
Mr. Dursley is a manager on a drill factory. For this reason there are a few descriptions of ordinary business life:
Mr Dursley hummed as he picked out his most boring tie for work. (1-1-6)
As he drove towards town he thought of nothing except a large order of drills he was hoping to get that day. (1-1-7)
Mr Dursley, however, had a perfectly normal, owl-free morning. He yelled at five different people. He made several important telephone calls and shouted a bit more. (1-1-9)
'Now, as we all know, today is a very important day.' ... 'This could well be the day I make the biggest deal of my career,' said Uncle Vernon. (2-1-11)
Uncle Vernon, Aunt Petunia and Dudley had gone out into the front garden to admire Uncle Vernon's new company car (in very loud voices, so that the rest of the street would notice it too) (3-1-9)
Here are no traces of Knowledge Economy or other tendencies mentioned in section 2.c. Mr. Dursley lives outside the magical world. He is a manager at a drills factory. Here is anything describing that he is a boring person with a boring job.
Summary: J.K. Rowling describes ordinary business life in the magical world as small-scale and relatively stable quite like Adam Smith saw business life in the ordinary world around him. However, there are traces of modern marketing in section 4.b.