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6. Sources and Appendix

6.a Books

Ib Andersen 2003: Den skinbarlige virkelighed ("The Incarnate Reality", textbook of social sciences methods), Samfundslitteratur, København

John Kenneth Galbraith 1967: The New Industrial State, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston

Henry Mintzberg 1979: The Structuring of Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

Henry Mintzberg 1983A: Structure in Fives, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

Henry Mintzberg 1983B: Power In and Around Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

Gareth Morgan 1997: Images of Organization, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

6.b Internet Sites

http://www.amazon.co.uk/

http://www.espen.com/papers/orgbrain.htm

http://www.imaginiz.com/

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1765.html

http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,68910,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_4

6.c Appendix

Here is a table showing connections between various topics in the excerpts of Morgan's metaphors:

Key Topics Machine Metaphor Organism Metaphor Brain Metaphor Culture Metaphor Political System Metaphor Psychic Prison Metaphor Flux and Transfor-mation Metaphor Domi-nation Metaphor
Bureaucracy x x x   x x   x
Defining Reality, Rationality, and Efficiency x x     x x   x
Formal authority, Autocracy, and Oligarchy x       x x   x
Taylorism x         x   x
Organizational Change   x x x   x x  
Relations to the Environment   x x x     x  
Company Culture     x x x x    
Organizational Power     x   x     x

Footnotes

[1] John Kenneth Galbraith 1967: The New Industrial State, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

[2] Henry Mintzberg 1983A: Structure in Fives, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey and Henry Mintzberg 1983B: Power In and Around Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

[3] Gareth Morgan 1997: Images of Organization, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

[4] From Ib Andersen 2003: Den skinbarlige virkelighed ("The Incarnate Reality", textbook of social sciences methods), Samfundslitteratur, København

[5] Henry Mintzberg 1979: The Structuring of Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

[6] Henry Mintzberg 1983A

[7] Henry Mintzberg 1983B

[8] Marketing from http://www.imaginiz.com/ and http://www.amazon.co.uk

[9] Galbraith 1967 p. 71

[10] Galbraith 1967 p. 212

[11] Galbraith 1967 p. 62

[12] Galbraith 1967 p. 77

[13] Galbraith 1967 p. 368

[14] Mintzberg 1983A p. 18, Mintzberg 1979 p. 33

[15] Mintzberg 1983A p. 15, Mintzberg 1979 p. 19

[16] Mintzberg 1983A p. 15, Mintzberg 1979 p. 29 f.

[17] Mintzberg 1983B p. 346

[18] Mintzberg 1979 p. 79

[19] Mintzberg 1983B p. 164

[20] Galbraith 1967 p. 66

[21] Mintzberg 1983B p. 185

[22] Mintzberg 1983B pp. 138, 199, and 206

[23] Mintzberg 1983B p. 34

[24] Galbraith 1967 p. 86

[25] Mintzberg 1983B p. 36

[26] Galbraith 1967 p. 67

[27] Galbraith 1967 p. 71, and added in a note: "He is still, of course, to be found in smaller firms and in larger ones that have yet to reach full maturity of organization"

[28] Galbraith 1967 p. 77

[29] Galbraith 1967 p. 80 and Mintzberg 1983B p. 186

[30] Mintzberg 1983B p. 129, quoting C. Northcote Parkinson, Parkinson's Law, and Other Studies in Administration, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957, p. 33

[31] Mintzberg 1983B p. 251 ff.

[32] Galbraith 1967 p. 90 f., and further: "Ford once prohibited advertising for several years and, ... said that the customer could have any color of car provided it was black."

[33] Mintzberg 1983B p. 124, quoting Gordon Donaldson: "Financial Goals: Management vs. Stockholders," Harvard Business Review, May-June 1963

[34] Mintzberg 1983B p. 134, the second sentence is abbreviated from "... enhancement of the prestige and resources of the specialty and professional excellence (sometimes in spite of client need) ..."

[35] Galbraith 1967 p. 189, my emphasizing

[36] Galbraith 1967 p. 172 f., my emphasizing

[37] Galbraith 1967 p. 80 f.

[38] Galbraith 1967 p. 81

[39] Galbraith 1967 p. 161 and 77

[40] Mintzberg 1983B p. 123, my emphasizing

[41] Galbraith 1967 p. 364 f.

[42] Morgan 1997 p. 4 ff.

[43] Morgan 1997 p. 347 ff. See also p. 348: "Management theories tend to sell the positive insights of a metaphor while ignoring the limitations and distortions that it creates."

[44] Morgan 1997 p. 348

[45] Morgan 1997 p. 350

[46] Morgan 1997 p. 15 f. Further, Frederick the Great invented the concept of staff: "To ensure that the military machine was used as wisely as possible, Frederick developed the distinction between advisory and command functions, freeing specialist advisers (staff) from the line of command to plan activities."

[47] Morgan 1997 p. 23

[48] Morgan 1997 p. 24

[49] Morgan 1997 p. 17, 240

[50] Morgan 1997 p. 27. And: "Under the influence of the same kind of mechanism that has helped make Taylorism so powerful, we often think about and treat ourselves as if we were machines." "Many of us impose forms of Taylorism on ourselves as we train and develop specialized capacities for thought and action and shape our bodies to conform with preconceived ideals." (p. 25 f.)

[51] Morgan 1997 p. 28 ff.

[52] The concept of "organization" is a metaphor in itself: Regarding a social connection as an organism.

[53] Morgan 1997 p. 34

[54] Morgan 1997 p. 39-45

[55] Morgan 1997 p. 36 ff.

[56] Morgan 1997 p. 51 f.

[57] Morgan 1997 p. 69

[58] Morgan 1997 p. 71. Morgan adds the social Darwinism which stressed that only the fittest would survive, as social life was seen as based on the laws of nature.

[59] Morgan 1997 p. 74, quoting G.R. Taylor 1979: "The Natural History of the Mind", Harper & Row, New York

[60] Morgan 1997 p. 76 f.

[61] http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,68910,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_4

[62] Morgan 1997 p. 77, quoting Daniel Dennett 1991: "Consciousness Explained", Little, Brown, Boston.

[63] Morgan 1997 p. 78 f.

[64] Negative feedback can be described as the principle in a house thermostat, or as picking up an object by avoiding not to pick it up, Morgan 1997 p. 84 f.

[65] Morgan 1997 p. 86

[66] Morgan 1997 p. 90

[67] Morgan 1997 p. 75 f.

[68] Morgan 1997 p. 102-106. Page 101 is the story of a Norwegian shipping company which lost half of its employees as a result af a charter plane crash, including many managers. The company was initially shocked and immobilized, but it was soon able to function very much as before. The remaining staff shared much of the original intelligence of the company and pooled their knowledge. This is quoted from Espen Andersen 1992: "On Organizations as Brains", http://www.espen.com/papers/orgbrain.htm

[69] Morgan 1997 p. 111

[70] Morgan 1997 p. 112 f.

[71] Morgan 1997 p. 114

[72] Morgan 1997 p. 115

[73] Morgan 1997 p. 81 ff.

[74] Morgan 1997 p. 79

[75] Morgan 1997 p. 86 f.

[76] Morgan 1997 p. 87, 94, 97

[77] Morgan 1997 p. 88

[78] Morgan 1997 p. 116 f.

[79] Morgan 1997 p. 120

[80] Morgan 1997 p. 121. Morgan calls our attention to the fact that "... in societies where households rather than formal organizations are the basic economic and productive units, work has a completely different meaning and often occupies far less of a person's time." In such societies "the distinctions drawn between means and ends and between occupational activities and other aspects of social life tend to be far more blurred."

[81] Morgan 1997 p. 129, 151 f.

[82] Morgan 1997 p. 144, 140

[83] Morgan 1997 p. 141 f.

[84] Morgan 1997 p. 148 f.

[85] Morgan 1997 p. 137, 126, 140, 145. See also p. 151: "Culture is self-organizing and is always evolving".

[86] Morgan 1997 p. 143, 150 f.

[87] Morgan 1997 p. 147, 143, 152, also: "We all construct or enact our realities but not necessarily under circumstances of our own choosing."

[88] Morgan 1997 p. 160

[89] Morgan 1997 p. 167 f., quoting Tom Burns 1961: "Micropolitics: Mechanisms of Organizational Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 6: 257-281.

[90] Morgan 1997 p. 199

[91] Morgan 1997 p. 155 and 159

[92] Morgan 1997 p. 171

[93] Morgan 1997 p. 172 f.

[94] Morgan 1997 p. 173 ff.

[95] Morgan 1997 p. 175 ff.

[96] Morgan 1997 p. 178 f.

[97] Morgan 1997 p. 179 f., possibly inspired by this early work: Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan 1979: "Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis", London and Exeter: NH. Heinemann

[98] Morgan 1997 p. 181

[99] Morgan 1997 p. 186

[100] Morgan 1997 p. 189

[101] Morgan 1997 p. 198

[102] Morgan 1997 p. 209

[103] Morgan 1997 p. 209 ff.

[104] Morgan 1997 p. 160

[105] Morgan 1997 p. 196

[106] Morgan 1997 p. 209

[107] Morgan 1997 p. 239 f.

[108] Morgan 1997 p. 235

[109] Morgan 1997 p. 240 f., 244, 246

[110] Morgan 1997 p. 246 f.

[111] Morgan 1997 p. 219 and http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1765.html. The Bay of Pigs invasion 14-19 April 1961 was intended to provoke popularity for an uprising against Fidel Castro. Instead, it gave Castro a military victory and a permanent symbol of Cuban resistance to American aggression. Eisenhower's administration planned the invasion through CIA, and Kennedy ordered the invasion shortly after his inauguration. The situation was delicate, since the plan was to overthrow a government with which the United States was not at war. Within the first few hours of the operation, it appeared that the invasion would fail. Much to the CIA’s surprise, locals firmly supported Castro and the Revolution.

[112] Morgan 1997 p. 231 ff. Galbraith remarks that the technostructure needs to be kept busy: "Unlike machinery or plant it disintegrates rapidly if not fully employed", Galbraith 1967 p. 173

[113] Morgan 1997 p. 247 f.

[114] Morgan 1997 p. 216 f., my brackets and bullets

[115] Morgan 1997 p. 227, 222, 240

[116] Morgan 1997 p. 228 f.

[117] Morgan 1997 p. 217, referring to Danny Miller 1990: "The Icarus Paradox", Harper Business, New York

[118] Morgan 1997 p. 300. In the final sentence of the chapter he proposes that the wish for prediction and control may be part of a psychic prison!

[119] Originally from J. Waddington 1957:"The Strategy of the Genes", Allen & Unwin, London, here from Jesper Hoffmeyer 1984: "Naturen i hovedet" (The Nature in your Mind), Rosinante, København

[120] Morgan 1997 p. 292 f.

[121] Morgan 1997 p. 254, 256. Please note that Maturana and Varela have strong reservations about application of their findings to the social world.

[122] Morgan 1997 p. 99

[123] Morgan 1997 p. 25

[124] Morgan 1997 p. 303 f., 341

[125] Morgan 1997 p. 305

[126] Morgan 1997 p. 306

[127] Morgan 1997 p. 306

[128] Morgan 1997 p. 321 ff.

[129] Morgan 1997 p. 307, 312

[130] Morgan 1997 p. 308

[131] In section 3.a Galbraith defines the technostructure as those "who bring specialized knowledge ... to group decision-making" and "and those who can organize the flow of information" (power source no. 5). The technostructure "is an apparatus for group decision" (source no. 4)

[132] See for example the method problems described in the end of section 4.f


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